George W. Bush (born 1946) was the 43rd President of the United States. Before becoming president, he worked in the oil business, co-owned the Texas Rangers baseball team, and was governor of Texas. He was elected president in 2000 after a close and controversial election. Eight months into Bush's first term as president, the September 11 Terrorist Attacks occurred. In response, Bush launched the War on Terror, a military campaign which included the war in Afghanistan and the war in Iraq (although the United States never formally declared war on Iraq). The Iraq “War” lasted nine years and caused over 100,000 deaths including over 66,000 civilian deaths. The insurgency is ongoing and continues to cause thousands of fatalities. Bush signed into law the PATRIOT Act, which authorized indefinite detention of immigrants, warrantless searches, increased surveillance, and other elements which undermine basic human freedoms. Bush authorized the CIA to use water boarding as one of several enhanced interrogation techniques. The Global War on Terror started by Bush now includes dozens of countries, with no end in sight.