Ulysses S. Grant (1822 – 1885) was the 18th President of the United States, following his military successes in the Civil War, as general of the Union Army. After the Civil War, Grant served two terms as president and worked to stabilize the nation during the turbulent Reconstruction period that followed. His campaign slogan was "Let us have peace." He enforced civil rights laws, fought Ku Klux Klan violence, and encouraged passage of the Fifteenth Amendment, giving protection for African-American voting rights. Under Grant, for the first time in American history, African-Americans represented themselves in Congress; however, by the time Grant left office in 1877, most African Americans had lost their political power, and would not regain it for nearly a century. Although Grant's Indian peace policy reduced Indian violence and created the Board of Indian Commissioners, conflict continued that culminated in the Battle of Little Big Horn. He appointed Ely S. Parker, a Seneca Indian and member of his wartime staff, as Commissioner of Indian Affairs.